Prithvi is a tactical surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP).
It is deployed by India's Strategic Forces Command.
The Government of India launched the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program in 1983 to achieve self-sufficiency in the development and production of wide range of ballistic missiles, surface-to-air missiles etc.
Prithvi was the first missile to be developed under the program.
DRDO attempted to build a surface-to-air missile under Project Devil.
In Service:-1994 (Prithvi I)
Used by:-Strategic Forces Command
Designer:-Defence Research and Development Organisation
Manufacturer:-Bharat Dynamics Limited
- February 25, 1988 (Prithvi I)
Operational range:-150 km (Prithvi I)
Prithvi I class is a single-stage liquid-fueled surface-to-surface ballistic missile having a maximum warhead mounting capability of 1,000 kg, with a range of 150 km (93 mi). It has an accuracy of 10–50 m (33–164 ft) and can be launched from transporter erector launchers. This class of Prithvi missile was inducted into the Indian Army in 1994.
- January 27, 1996 (Prithvi II)
Operational range:-250–350 km (Prithvi II)
Prithvi II class is also a single-stage liquid-fueled missile having a maximum warhead mounting capability of 500 kg, but with an extended range of 250 km (160 mi). It was developed with the Indian Air Force being the primary user. It was first test-fired on 27 January 1996 and the development stages were completed in 2004.
- January 23, 2004 (Prithvi III)
Operational range:-350–750 km (Prithvi III)
Prithvi III class is a two-stage SURFACE-to-SURFACE missile. The first stage is solid fueled with a 16 metric ton force (157 kN) thrust motor. The second stage is liquid-fueled. The missile can carry a 1,000 kg warhead to a distance of 350 km (220 mi) and a 500 kg warhead to a distance of 600 km (370 mi) and a 250 kg warhead up to a distance of 750 km (470 mi).
Prithvi III was first tested in 2000 from INS Subhadra, a Sukanya-class patrol vessel.
Engine:-Single-stage liquid rocket (Prithvi I, Prithvi II),
Two-stage solid rocket (Prithvi III)
Warhead:-High explosives, penetration, cluster munition, fragmentation, thermobaric, chemical weapon and tactical nuclear weapon.
The Prithvi missile project encompassed developing three variants for use by the Indian Army, Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy. The initial project framework of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program outlines the variants in the following manner.
- Prithvi I (SS-150) – Army version (150 km (93 mi) range with a payload of 1,000 kg (2,200 lb))
- Prithvi II (SS-250) – Air Force version (350 km (220 mi) range with a payload of 500 kg (1,100 lb))
- Prithvi III (SS-350) – Naval version (350 km (220 mi) range with a payload of 1,000 kg (2,200 lb))