PINAKA : Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher


        Multi Barrel Missile Launcher





Pinaka is a multiple rocket launcher produced in India and developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the Indian Army.


It has two types :

  • Mk1

Maximum range:–40km

  • Mk1 Enhance version

Maximum range :–60Km

and can fire a salvo of 12 HE rockets in 44 seconds.

The system is mounted on a Tatra truck for mobility. Pinaka saw service during the Kargil War, where it was successful in neutralising enemy positions on the mountain tops.


  • Designer:–Armament Research and Development Establishment
  • Designed:–1986-preset
  • Manufacturer:–Solar Industries

Yantra India Limited


  • Produced:-1998-present
  • Variants
  • Mk-I: 37.5 km (23.3 mi)
  • ADM: 37.5 km (23.3 mi)
  • Mk-I Enhanced: 45 km (28 mi)
  • Mk-II: 60 km (37 mi)
  • Guided Pinaka: 75 km (47 mi) (under-development)
  • ERR 122: 40 km (25 mi) (Testing Phase)
  • Mk-II ER: 90 km (56 mi) (Testing Phase)
  • Mk-III: 120 km (75 mi) (under-development)
  •   Length

2.91 m (9 ft 7 in) to 5.17 m (17 ft 0 in)

  • Diameter
  • 122 mm (4.8 in) to 214 mm (8.4 in)
  • Caliber
  • 122 mm (4.8 in) (ERR 122),
  • 214 mm (8.4 in) (Pinaka Mk.1, ADM, Mk.1 Enhanced, MK.II, Guided Pinaka)


  • Barrels:-12
  • Elevation:-55°
  • Traverse:-90°
  • Warhead weight

100 kg (220 lb) to 250 kg (550 lb)

  • Engine

T-930 multi-fuel turbocharged V8 engine with intercooler

  • Payload capacity

22 tonne

  • Operational range~800km
  • Flight altitude:–40 km (25 mi)
  • Maximum speed Rocket: Mach 4.7

Launcher: 80 km/h (50 mph)


The Indian Army operates the Russian BM-21 Grad Launchers. In 1981, in response to the Indian Army's need for a long range artillery system, the Indian Ministry of Defence sanctioned two confidence building projects. In July 1983, the Army formulated their General Staff Qualitative Requirement (GSQR) for the system, with planned induction of one Regiment per year from 1994 onwards. This system would eventually replace the Grads.


Development began in December 1986, with a sanctioned budget of ₹ 26.47 crore. The development was to be completed in December 1992. Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE), a Pune-based DRDO laboratory, led the development of the system.


To decrease single source dependency from Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) and increase competition in product pricing front, final developmental trials of Pinaka manufactured fully by Indian private sector Solar Industries under transfer-of-technology agreement from DRDO were successfully conducted by Indian Army at Pokhran Range on 19 August 2020.


On 24 June 2021, DRDO successfully fired 25 Pinaka Mk I Enhanced variants at a range of 45 km in quick succession mode as part of saturation attack simulation. On 25th June 2021 DRDO successfully test fired a 40 km range 122mm caliber rocket which was made to replace the older BM-21 Grad rockets in the Indian Army.